Cover Image

Toxic Leadership, Teachers’ Job Satisfaction and Organisational Commitment in Lagos State Tertiary Institutions, Nigeria

Nurudeen Olalekan Orunbon, Rasaki Olanrewaju Lawal, Margaret Modupe Isaac-Philips, Rafiyat Iyabo Salaudeen


Employee job satisfaction and organisational commitment are directly influenced by leadership styles. Despite the fact that the good elements of leadership have already been explored, the bad sides of leadership must be addressed as well. This study examined the relationship between school toxic leadership, teachers’ job satisfaction and organisational commitment in Lagos State tertiary institutions. Two hypotheses were set to serve as guides for the study. Correlational and descriptive research designs were adopted while the population comprised all lecturers in Lagos State owned tertiary institutions. The sample size was 240 lecturers after stratifying the population into the institutions nomenclature and thereafter selected through purposive sampling technique. Analysis was carried out using inferential statistics of Pearsons Product-Moment Correlation Analysis. Findings indicated that a negative relationship existed between toxic leadership and teachers’ job satisfaction in Lagos State tertiary institutions and also a negative relationship existed between toxic leadership and organisational commitment in Lagos State tertiary institutions. According to the findings of the study, toxic leadership exists in Lagos State higher institutions. The study recommended that before being placed in leadership roles, tertiary institution lecturers should be exposed to leadership development training and opportunities.


Toxic Leadership; Job satisfaction; Organisational Commitment

Full Text:



Armitage, A. (2015). The dark side: The poetics of toxic leadership. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 17(3), 376-390.

Aryee, S., Chen, Z. X., Sun, L. Y., & Debrah, Y. A. (2007). Antecedents and outcomes of abusive supervision: test of a trickle-down model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), 191.

Baloyi, G. T. (2020). Toxicity of leadership and its impact on employees: Exploring the dynamics of leadership in an academic setting, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 76(2), 1-8. a5949. 10.4102/hts.v76i2.5949

Baumeister, R. F., Bratslavsky, E., Finkenauer, C., & Vohs, K. D. (2001). Bad is stronger than good. Review of General Psychology, 5(4), 323-370.

Buitendach, J.H., & Rothmann, S. (2009). The validation of the Minnesota Job Satisfaction questionnaire in selected organisations in South Africa. South African Journal of Human Resource Management, 7(1), 1–8.

Burris, E. R., Detert, J. R., & Chiaburu, D. S. (2008). Quitting before leaving: The mediating effects of psychological attachment and detachment on voice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(4), 912–922.

Clugston M, Howell J, and Dorfman P (2000) Does cultural socialization predict multiple bases and foci of commitment? Journal of Management 26: 5–30.

Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M.S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31(6), 874–900. 0149206305279602

Doriane, B., & Manon, D. (2013). Toxic Leadership. Kalmar: Linnaeus University.

Durusu, H. (2019). Primary school teachers' perceptions of the mobbing levels, workplace friendship and their relationships with organisational commitment and examining them in terms of some variables. Educational Sciences Institute. Ankara: Gazi University.

Einarsen, S., Aasland, M. S., & Skogstad, A. (2007). Destructive leadership behaviour: A definition and conceptual model. The Leadership Quarterly, 18(3), 207-216.

Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen., N. E., & Hyun, H. (2011). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education (8a ed.) McGraw-Hill Education.

Giroux, H., (2015). Neoliberalism’s war against higher education and the role of public

intellectuals, Límite. Revista Interdisciplinaria de Filosofía Psicología 10(34), 5–16.

Hadadian, Z., & Sayadpour, Z. (2018). Relationship between Toxic Leadership and Job Related Affective Well-Being:The Mediating Role of Job Stress. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences, 7(1), 137-138.

Harris, K. J., Kacmar, K. M., & Zivnuska, S. (2007). An investigation of abusive supervision as a predictor of performance and meaning of work as a moderator of the relationship. The Leadership Quarterly 18(3):252-263.

Herbst, T.H.H. & Conradie, P.D.P. (2011). Leadership effectiveness in higher education: Managerial self-perceptions versus perceptions of others, South

African Journal of Industrial Psychology 37(1), 11 14.

Herbst, T. H. H. & Mukhola, M. S., (2018). Female leaders’ experience of toxic leadership in higher education institutions in South Africa, in N. Delener & C. Scheikert (eds.), Global business and technology association: 20th international conference, GBATA proceedings, Bangkok, Thailand, July 3–7, 2018, pp. 183–193.

Huang, Y., Lee, J., McFadden, A., Murphy, L., Robertson, M., Cheung, J., & Zohar, D. (2016). Beyond safety outcomes: An investigation of the impact of safety climate on job satisfaction, employee engagement and turnover using social exchange theory as the theoretical framework. Applied Ergonomics, 55, 248-257.

Hussein, G.A.S., Wang, H., Hesham, M.A.H. & Madina, K., (2018) Dark leadership impact on psychological well-being and work-family conflict: Implications for project success of Bahrain companies. Journal of International Business Research and Marketing 3(3), 32-39.

Indradevi, R. (2016). Toxic Leadership over the Years-A Review. Purushartha: A Journal of Management Ethics and Spirituality, 9(1), 107.

Kellerman, B. (2004). Bad leadership: What it is, how it happens, why it matters. Harvard Business Press. Kelloway, E. K., Mullen, J., & Francis, L. (2006). Divergent effects of transformational and passive leadership on employee safety. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11(1), 76.

Kusy, M., & Holloway, E. (2009). Toxic workplace: Managing toxic personalities and their systems of power. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Leet, E. (2011). The impact of Toxic or Severe Dysfunctional Leadership has on the effectiveness of an organisation. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Murdoch University.

Lipman-Blumen, J. (2010). Toxic leaders: They are plentiful. In G.R. Hickman (Ed), Leading Organisations: Perspectives for A New Era (2nd ed). Washington, D,C: Sage.

Locke, E. A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In Handbook of industrial and organisational psychology 1, 1297-1343.

Mafini, C. (2014) Tracking the employee satisfaction–life satisfaction binary: The case of South African academics. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 40(2), 1–11.

Maxwell, S. (2015). An exploration of human resource personnel and toxic leadership. Minneapolis: College of Management and Technology, Walden University.

McDonald, D. J., & Makin, P. J. (2000). he Psychological Contract, Organisational Commitment and Job Satisfacction of Temporary Staff. Leadership & Organisation Development, 21, 84-91.

Mehta, S., & Maheshwari, G.C. (2013). Consequence of toxic leadership on employee job satisfaction and organisational commitment. Journal of Contemporary Management Research, 8(2), 1–23.

Mowday, R. T., Porter, L. W., & Steers, R. (1982). Organisational linkages: The psychology of commitment, absenteeism and turnover. New York: Academic Press.

Naseer, S., Raja, U., Syed, F., Donia, M. B., & Darr, W. (2016). Perils of being close to a bad leader in a bad environment: Exploring the combined effects of despotic leadership, leader member exchange, and perceived organisational politics on behaviours. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(1), 14-33.

Ngcamu, B. S. (2015). Leadership and transformation in a South African university, Problems and Perspectives in Management 13(1), 208–216.

Orunbon, N. O. (2021). Toxic Leadership Behaviour, Followership Characteristics and Productivity in Lagos Senior Secondary Schools, Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Lagos State University.

Padilla, A., Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. (2007). The toxic triangle: Destructive leaders, susceptible followers, and conducive environments. The Leadership Quarterly, 18 (3); 178.

Rayner C. and Cooper C. ( 1997) Workplace bullying: Myth or reality - Can we afford to ignore it? Leadership and Organisation Development Journal 18(4): 211-214.

Raziq, A., & Maulabakhsh, R. (2015). Impact of Working Environment on Job Satisfaction. Procedia Economics and Finance, 23, 717 – 725.

Salkind, N. J. (2016). Statistics for people (who think) Hate Statistics: Using Microsoft Excel. (4th Eds). SAGE Publishers.

Samier, E.A. & Schmidt, M. (eds.). (2010). Trust and betrayal in educational administration and leadership, Routledge, London.

Schmidt, A. A. (2008). Development and validation of the toxic leadership scale. Unpublished masters thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.

Schyns, B., & Schilling, J. (2013). How bad are the effects of bad leaders? A meta-analysis of destructive leadership and its outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, 24(1), 138-158.

Shaju, M., & Subhashini, D. (2017). A study on the impact of job satisfaction on job performance of employees working in automobile industry, Punjab, India. Journal of Management Research, 9(1), 117–130.

Shantz, A., Alfes, K., Truss, C., & Soane, E. (2013). The role of employee engagement in the relationship between job design and task performance, citizenship and deviant behaviours. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(13), 2608-2627.

Siders, M. A., George, G., & Dharwadkar, R. (2001). The Relationship of Internal and External Commitment Foci to Objective Job Performance Measures. The Academy of Management Journal 1(3)

Tavanti, M. (2011). Managing toxic leaders: Dysfunctional patterns in organisational leadership and how to deal with them. Human Resource Management, 134.

Tepper, B. J. (2000). Consequences of abusive supervision. Academy of Management Journal, 43(2), 178-190.

Tepper, B. J., Carr, J. C., Breaux, D. M., Geider, S., Hu, C., & Hua, W. (2009). Abusive supervision, intentions to quit, and employees’ workplace deviance: A power/dependence analysis. Organisational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 109(2), 156-167.

Tepper, B.J. (2007). Abusive supervision in work organisations: Review, synthesis and research agenda. Journal of Management, 33(3), 261–289.

Weaver, S. G., & Yancy, G. B. (2010) The Impact of Dark Leadership on Organisational Commitment and Turnover. Kravis Leadership Institute.

Leadership Review, 10,104 – 124.

Weberg, D. R., & Fuller, R. M. (2019, February). Toxic Leadership: Three Lessons From Complexity Science to Identify and Stop Toxic Teams. Nurse Leader, 17(1), 22-26.

Webster, V., Brough, P., & Daly, K. (2016). Fight, Flight or Freeze: Common Responses for Follower Coping with Toxic Leadership. Stress and Health, 346.

Wicker, M. (1996). Toxic leaders: When organisations go bad. Westport CT: Praeger.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Nurudeen Olalekan ORUNBON, Rasaki Olanrewaju Lawal, Margaret Modupe Isaac-Philips, Rafiyat Iyabo Salaudeen

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 Publisher: FKIP Universitas Riau